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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 322: Cancer Treatment

By E. C. Easson

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Book Id: WPLBN0000113145
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 2.5 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 322: Cancer Treatment  
Author: E. C. Easson
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Easson, E. C. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 322. Retrieved from http://community.worldlibrary.org/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION Cancer is a collective term for the malignant neoplasms arising in body tissue. Since it includes all malignant tumours--carcinoma, sarcoma and lymphoma-, it is preferable to speak of different cancers affecting different organs or structures. Cancers differ not only in tissue of origin and morphological appearance but also in etiology, clinical course, prognosis, age and sex incidence, and other characteristics. They also respond in different ways to treatment, so that each patient requires individual consideration. The clinician is concerned, however, not just with the specific treatment of a malignant tumour, but with the management of the patient as a whole in his particular socio-economic setting. There is widespread despondency about cancer which is not justified by the available evidence. While it is true that certain types of neoplasms, such as those of the pancreas or the brain, are still lesions with a grave prognosis, there are many other common cancers for which appropriate treatment can be curative in substantial numbers of patients. It has indeed been estimated that one cancer in every three is of a type for which cure by the best existing methods is feasible. This hopeful aspect of cancer is insufficiently appreciated, even by the medical profession itself; too many pessimistic patients find themselves consulting equally pessimistic physicians.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2 . Planning of cancer treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2.1 General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2.2 Extent of disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2.3 Histopathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2.4 Biological factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2.5 Staff co-ordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3 . Types of cancer treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3.1 Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3.2 Radiotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 3.3 Chemotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 3.4 Hormone therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 3.5 Combined therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 3.6 Management of patients with terminal cancer . . . .31 4 . Evaluation of cancer treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 4.1 Use of cancer registry data for evaluation of end results 32 4.2 Clinical trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 4.3 The T.N.M. system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 4.4 Survival analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 5 . Organization of cancer treatment . . . . . . . . . . . .38 5.1 Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 5.2 Treatment centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 5.3 Types of establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 5.4 Training of personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 5.5 The role of cancer registries . . . . . . . . . . . .43 6 . Research in the treatment of cancer . . . . . . . . . .46 6.1 Clinical research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 6.2 Investigation of prognostic factors . . . . . . . . .48 6.3 Host-turnour relationship and antiviral therapy . . . .48 6.4 Research in the epidemiology of cancer . . . . . . .49 Amex 1 . Estimate of requirements for cancer treatment in an area with a population of 1 000 000 . . . . . . .50 Annex 2 . Equipment for a radiotherapy department or centre 51 Annex 3 . Radiation sources in cancer treatment . . . . . .54

 

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